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Red Cloud

Born: 1822 AD
Died: 1909 AD

1822 – Was born close to the forks of the Platte River by the modern-day city of North Platte, Nebraska.


1851 – In an treaty at Fort Laramie, the Sioux (among other tribes) had agreed on terms by which the United States might establish limited roads and military posts on Indian land.


1865 – Red Cloud was one of many Indian leaders who believed the U.S. was breaking the treaty by establishing forts too far up the Bozeman Trail. They had seen other tribes expelled from their land and were determined to resist.



1865 – On June, he joined a coalition led by Woqini of the Cheyenne, to attack a military post on the North Platte River.



1866 – He began what has come to be known as Red Cloud’s War, the most successful war an Indian nation ever waged against the U.S. military.


1868 – On the 6th of November, he signed a treaty that, unknown to him, provided for reservations and the cession of certain tribal lands.


1876-1877 – He was unsuccessful in finding a peaceful solution, and did not take part in the Lakota war lead by T‘ašunka Witko and Tatanka Iyotake.


1881 – Deposed as chief, he lived thereafter in retirement on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota.


1909 – He became blind in his later years and died at the Pine Ridge Agency on the 10th of December.