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Amontons, Guillaume

Born: 1663 AD
Died: 1705 AD

1663 – Born on August 31st in Paris, France. Guillaume Amontons, one of the most ingenious inventors of his age.

1687 – He presented to the Academy of Sciences a hygrometer of his own invention.

         – He invented a new type of hygroscopic hygrometer, based on the expansion and contraction of a substance as it absorbs and loses atmospheric moisture.

1688 – He devised an optical telegraph (see telegraphy), which he thought would be of help to deaf people.

1690 – Amontons became a member of the Académie des Sciences.

1695 – He published his only book, Remarques et expériences physiques sur la construction d’une nouvelle clepsydre, sur les baromètres, les thermomètres et les hygromètres.

         – Amontons invented a barometer that did not require a reservoir of mercury.

         – He improved on the air thermoscope that had been invented by Galileo.

1699 – He published some investigations on friction.

         – Amontons’s law, which he described and which can be stated as P1T2 = P2T1. It also allowed Amontons to visualize a temperature at which gases contracted to a volume beyond which they could contract no further. This was the concept of absolute zero.

1704 – He noted that barometers are affected by heat as well as by the weight of the atmosphere, and in the following year he described barometers without mercury, for use at sea.

1705 – Died on October 11th in Paris, France.